Bleeding (hemorrhage)


BLEEDING (HEMORRHAGE)


Introduction-

        When a part of the body gets hurt or cut in any type of accident, bleeding starts taking place from that part. in such condition, you should need to check the breathing and heartbeats of the injured person and when both are normal, first of all you should try to stop the bleeding from that part, because if the blood will come out in additional volume, the injured person may die too due to deficiency of blood in his/her body. So, it is very necessary to give primary treatment (first aid) to him/her in such condition.   

Bleeding due to wounds- when any of the body parts gets hurt or cut, wound is formed (appeared) on that part and bleeding starts taking place from this wound. If the bleeding is not stopped at this time, bacterial are entered inside the body through this wound and generates infection. Bigger wounds from outside are not as much harmful as when they are become deeper, therefore the wounds formed by knife, sword, bullet, etc. may be too serious, because all these means make deep wound. The blood vessels are cut badly through them, so blood also comes out in extra volume from the wounds or cut.

        Bacterial is present around the place where a person meets to an accident which do not infect the cuts or injuries at a time, but they start multiplying their numbers after sometimes and infect that cuts or injuries. If we do not stop them to multiply their numbers, they are entered in the blood and make it poisonous resulting the injured person is become the victim (patient) of septicemia. If the wound has formed by a nail or any other iron piece or object lying on the road, there is a chance of occurring tetanus in the injured person. So, in case of getting hurt or cut through any type of iron pieces or objects, the injured person should need to take vaccine of tetanus toxide by a doctor immediately.

        The bleeding from the wounds takes place due to cutting of artery, blood vessels or cells, etc. sometimes, all these three together are the responsible for it.

        The blood coming out from the arteries is shiny in appearance. It comes out with jerk haltingly, because it is related to heartbeats. The volume of the blood coming out from the depth of the wounds is normally high and if it is not stopped to come out in such condition, the patient’s condition may become too serious.               

        One may be alive even after coming out about 1.5 liter of blood from his/her body due to any accident. Blood comes out in this volume very easily after cutting of any big artery. Dark red blood goes on coming out continuously after cutting of any nerve. Due to cutting of cells, the blood does not flow out, but leaks from the body. Bleeding from the nerves and cells is less harmful comparison to the bleeding from arteries.   

Treatment- primary treatment given to prevent bleeding depends on the condition of the bleeding and means available in that condition-

        If the injured person has no any type of hurt on his/her back or his/her vertebral column has not get any type of harm, make him/her as lie down on a hard even surface on his/her back. It will lessen the possible of becoming the sufferer unconscious as well as it will be easy to check his/her other body organs.

        If you do not find any outer wounds while checking, but the sufferer is in the condition of shock, you should need to check every of his/her body organs once more. If any type of swelling or pink appearance is found on his/her body, it may be the sign of internal bleeding.

        In such condition, your aim is only to control his/her condition to become more serious during primary treatment. in addition to it, you should have to clean (dressing) the wounds of the sufferer and give primary treatment to him/her according to the ways said above-        

Dressing of wounds- first of all, it is very necessary for you to wash your hands with soap and water before starting treatment, but do not wipe them, because the piece of clothe or towel from which you wipe you hands may have bacteria on it.

        For dressing (cleaning) wounds, using only soap and water is considered as the best. The water should be clean and pure like that of drinking water and should have any type of antiseptic medicines in it, because such medicine may generate harmful effects and enhance (aggravate) the sufferer’s pain. Few of the people are sensitive to such medicine and may get allergy.  

        The wound should be washed properly with enough water for removing dust, soil, etc. flowing water of a tap is the best for this purpose. If you find glass (lead) pieces, pebbles, etc. entangled in the wound, pull out through hand and then wash the wound once again. If blood clot has been found in the wound, do not disturb it, because it may starts bleeding again.

        After washing the wounds well, wipe them with nirjarmit gauge. If it is not available, hanky or a piece of cotton clothes can be used instead of it. but, the hanky or a piece of clothes should be washed, cleaned and soft. After washing the wounds, tie bandage on them and carry the sufferer to a hospital immediately.

        Do not apply any type of antiseptic on big wounds, because it may react.

Preventing of bleeding- allow the sufferer to sit or lie down in such a posture that he/she feels relief (comfortable). If it is possible, up the body part from which blood is coming out so that bleeding could become slow and could come out in little volume. But, be sure before doing it that the bone of that part has been fractured or not. If you find the bone as fractured, do not disturb it, because it may be more harmful for that affected part.

        If blood is coming out by cutting artery, it is very important to prevent it immediately. For this purpose, put a clean and washed hanky on it and press. Normally, by pressing the cut after putting a hanky over it for 2 to 5 minutes, bleeding is stopped. Keep one thing always in your mind that the pressure given to prevent the bleeding is not too hard otherwise other body organs may be suffered from insufficient supply of blood.  

        The bleeding taken place from the arteries of neck, thigh, upper arms, etc. is found in high volume. To prevent such bleeding immediately, pressure can be given on the cut artery by inserting finger inside the wound. Well, there is no any doubt that the bleeding is prevented through it, but the possibility of getting infection is increased too much.

        If a handkerchief or a piece of cloth is not available, the bleeding can be prevented by inserting finger inside the wound, but it should be done only in emergency only.

        The blood coming out after cutting nerve is dark red in appearance and goes on flowing out continuously. This condition is less serious than bleeding from artery. However, it should be treated immediately. By making the injured part little up, this type of bleeding is lessened. Press the cut or injury after putting gauge over it minimum for 2 minutes and maximum for 5 minutes. If it makes no impression, tie a stripe on it tightly.

        If blood is leaking after getting scratches, by pressing the scratches after putting a piece of cloth over it for few minutes and then tying bandage on it, the blood is stopped leaking. This type of bleeding is not dangerous, because the blood coming out from the scratches are converted into clots and prevent bleeding.

        In few cases only like- in the patient of hemophilia, the blood goes on leaking for a long time from his/her scratches. In such condition, the patient should be carried to a doctor immediately.

        Hemophilia is a hereditary disease in which blood is not able to be turned in to clot and it occurs only in male, but not in fair sexes.   

Internal bleeding- in many cases, there is no any marks found on the body of injured person, but the bleeding goes on taking place internally inside his/her body organs due to getting hurt. In such condition, it can be diagnosed by observing the physical symptoms of the injured person.

        This type of condition should be controlled (treated) by following ways-

        For doing primary treatment of internal bleeding (hemorrhage), first of all make the sufferer lie down on his/her back straightly and up his/her lets little up by placing a pillow, etc. under them.

        Keep the sufferer motionless completely and do not allow him/her to move even little, as well as go on consoling (giving hope) him/her.

        Try to keep his/her body warm with a thin blanket or bed sheet, but never use the bag of hot water even by mistake on his/her chest or stomach for giving warmth.

          After doing primary treatment, carry the sufferer to the nearest hospital immediately, but be careful about jerks while carrying him/her in any vehicles.

Note- do not give anything to the sufferer for eating and drinking, because any type of operation (surgery) may be needed and at that time, eaten food may create problems in the way of it. 

Bleeding due to hurt of chest- when the chest gets any type of hurts, the impacts of it fall also on the heart, lungs, ribs, etc. in such case, the hurt’s marks do not seen on the chest from outside, but the internal organs get harm like- fracturing of bones, cutting of artery or nerve, etc. such types of internal hurts create disturbances in the proper functioning of our body. The sufferer feels intolerable pain due to it and also feels difficulty in breathing. The condition of the sufferer may become too serious due to getting hurt on the heart and lungs and if he/she does not get treatment on time, he/she may die too. Therefore, in such condition, the sufferer should be carried to a doctor immediately without wasting time unnecessarily.

        For doing primary treatment of internal hemorrhage occurring due to getting hurt on chest, first of all loose all the worn clothes of the sufferer so that his/her body could get fresh air. Do not allow him/her to move even little. Try to keep him/her quite and also do not give tea, coffee, etc. to him/her for drinking, but ice-cubes can be given for sucking. It is needed to be very careful while carrying such patient to a hospital.

        In many cases, one gets serious hurt on his/her chest due to falling down on his/her chest or by using sudden break while driving a car, etc. In such condition, his/her ribs may be broken or the nerves and muscles of his/her neck may be burst by geeing hard jerk on it suddenly.

        In such condition, the sufferer feels too restlessness, feels difficulty in inhaling and exhaling. Due to difficulty in exhaling, carbon dioxide is not able to come out from the body resulting his/her face is fallen into blue. The strength of chest is ended by fracturing of chest’s bones or ribs. In addition to them, such types of function start happening which are quite different from a normal person like- when the sufferer inhales, his/her chest start contracting inwards and when he/she exhales, the chest starts expanding outwards i.e. just opposite to a normal ones. In such condition, treatment should be given to the sufferer immediately otherwise obstruction may occur in breathing and obstruction may also occur in reaching oxygen to other body organs (different organs of his/her body may feel disturbance in getting sufficient amount of oxygen).

        In such case, loose all the worn clothes of the sufferer before becoming his/her condition too worse and do primary treatment of his/her chest’s hurt by following ways-

        For this purpose, first of all place a pad on the chest of sufferer and put one of his/her hand on it and then tie it.

        If the sufferer gets injury or hurt on his/her chest by knife or any sharp tools or weapons, his/her body starts turning into blue soon. Sound comes out by inhaling and bloody froth comes out by exhaling. Sometimes, blood also comes out along with spit.

        In such condition, it is necessary to shut (close) the wounds so that air could not enter in the chest. For this purpose, meet the edges of wounds together by pulling and hold it in this position until pad is prepared.

        Then, fill the wounds by dressing and tie a bandage tightly by placing a thick piece of cotton over it or apply sticky plaster..