Digestive system


        Every animal (living organisms) in this world have need of energy for doing different body functions like respiration or activities related to muscles, that they get from food. Whatever foods we eat are not digested directly, but it has to be converted in to simpler form (as fluid) which is carried to different tissues by the means of blood and only the blood nourishes this fluid. 

        Whatever foods the human eat consist of protein, fats and shwetsar. Shwetsar is converted into glucose, fats in fatal acids and protein is converted in to amino acid. Glucose provides energy directly and amino acid is soluble in water and dissolved in the blood and helps in the formation tissues. Like this, fat is mixed in alkaline (alkali) found inside small intestines (alkali is used in soap). These substances are good solutes and are absorbed easily. There are also many types of minerals besides them like- phosphorus, iron, sodium, calcium and different types of vitamins. These are used directly for different body’s functions. Fats and shwetsar substances provided energy to the body and they help in burning of calorie or energy units.   

        Digestion process completes through an 8-10 m long pipe (tube). Since this pipe digests food, so it is called food pipe. This pipe starts from mouth and grows downwards inside the body through throat to the rectum. It remains divided into many parts like- stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, pancreas, oesophagus and nareti.    

Figure of human digestive systems-

Many parts are found in human digestive systems, which are as follow-

  1. Stomach.
  2. Liver.
  3. Gall bladder.
  4. Pancreas.
  5. Pharynx.
  6. Oesophagus.
  7. Cardiac orifice.
  8. Pyloric.
  9. Ascending colon.
  10. Jejunum.
  11. Ileum.
  12. Avgrahantra.
  13. Vermiform appendix.
  14. Rectum.

        when human eats food, first of all he chew it resulting food stuffs are broken in to simpler forms and mixed with saliva resulting foods is digested partially inside the mouth. Every human secretes about 1.5 liter saliva in his mouth in whole day. When food particles are mixed with saliva, these are forwarded (pushed) in to pharynx with the help of tongue. At the same time, a small valve known as upjinhva covers the mouth of respiratory pipe so that food particles did not able to go inside the respiratory pipe. Food particles are entered in to throat and then reach inside a small bag like structure, called stomach. Here, food is to be digested. The stomach is an important part of digestive systems. There are many types of digestive glands (about 5 lacks) found inside the stomach. The stomach secretes about 2 liter digestive juice in a day. Many biological substances remain mixed in this digestive juice, which is known as enzymes and hydrochloric acid. These substances fasten the separation of carbohydrates and protein. The digestive juices also destroy many bacteria found inside the stomach. The lowest part of stomach contracts like waves that break the foods into simplest form before entering them inside the small intestine.

        A tube is found inside the small intestine in 5-7 m in length. There are three parts of this tube, which are as follow- duodenum, jejunum and ileum. The duodenum appears like an English alphabet ‘U’. Two tubes are found in it- first, bile tube and second, pancreatic tube. Again, two tubes are also found in bile tube that remains connected with bile and liver. From pancreatic tube, bile and pancreatic juice come out. Bile juice is a type of yellow bitter fluid, which helps in the digestion of fats. 

        The part inside human body from which bile tube remains connected is known as liver. The liver is about 1.5 kg in weight and located in the upper part of abdominal ganhar. In the body, it is found towards left side of adhopasthic. The liver also does important functions for the body besides secreting bile. It collects glucose, known as glycogen. The liver stores the glucose for nutrition. As soon the other parts of body suffer from lack of glucose as the liver leaves (secretes) stored glucose in the blood and then it is distributed in different parts of the body through blood. As a result of it, the parts which have need of glucose get it easily.        

        In addition to them, the liver does one more work too. When fat lever is decreased inside the body, the liver converts carbohydrates into fat and it also converts poisonous substances into non-poisonous substances. In this way, we can say that the liver acts as a protector.

       The bile, the liver secretes, is goes on collecting inside the gall bladder. The liver secretes bile inside duodenum when foods have entered into it. Sometimes, stones are formed inside the gall bladder as well as in the tubes connected with it. Stone is a round piece of solid cholesterol that present inside the gall bladder.  

        In this way, food goes inside small intestine in different forms where the particles of this food are separated properly and converted into liquid (fluid) form. This liquid substance becomes able to be absorbed by the body and the nutritive elements of it is mixed in the blood and then circulated to all the body tissues. After that, this digested food is entered inside a 1.5 m long and wide tube, called large intestine.

Important parts found in the intestines-

  1. Ascending colon.
  2. Descending colon.
  3. Colon or large intestine.
  4. Avgrahantra.
  5. Caecum.
  6. Krimyakar upantra.
  7. Rectum.
  8. Anus.

        There are various types of bacteria found inside large intestine which converts the digested food into yeast and acts on protein resulting gas forms in extra quantity. Due to malfunctioning of protein, harmful substances like skatol and indol are also being produced. These harmful substances are entered inside the liver. The large intestine also absorbs additional quantity of water like fluid.   

        Vermiform appendix found inside the intestine is located below the caecum and plays an important role in the absorption of water from waste products (stools) and provides solidification and moist. 

        A transparent moist and curly membrane is located on the outer and inner abdominal layer found inside the intestine. It is called abdominal membrane. Abdominal membrane forms in between two parts of outer layer of the abdomen and remain as moistened for providing humid to the internal parts.