There are different kinds of accidents in human life. Such types of accident can be small and dangerous too. Accident can take place everywhere. For example, a person can get injury while sitting at home or going on the road too.
- One or two wads of clean cotton
- Band aid that sticks
- A few slant and long bandage
- A few painkiller tablets
- A little wine
- Castor oil
- Glycerin and Vaseline
- Boric acid boric ointment, sprit, dettol or savalon, potassium paramagnet, tincture, iodine, barnol or other medicine for wounds.
- One small scissors, one surgical knife and a few safety pin
- One spoon and a small glass to give water and medicine to the victim
Name should be written on every bottle and packet of medicine so that the victim may not take any wrong medicine. Medicines and ointment should be kept separately.
Deeds of first aid:
The doctor who treats just after the accident should be well versed in treatment. He should have knowledge how bandages are tied and opened along with basic knowledge. If the doctor is well versed in treatment, he will be able to find out whether the injury is normal or serious. Besides it, he knows how the patient is to be treated.
If you have a little knowledge of treatment, you should start treatment with peaceful mind soon by dispersing the crowd gathered there. It is true that all the people gathered near about the victim will be nervous but you should not be nervous at any rate because your nervousness can be the cause of wrong treatment.
First, make the victim lie on the bed gently. Take water and pour a little water in the mouth of the victim by giving a little support. If the victim is not conscious, sprinkle a little water on his face. If there is obstruction in breathing, make the head of the victim a little high. If the victim is not able to take breath easily, you should pull his tongue out by holding it. Keep the head of the patient at one side so that he may take breath easily.
If the victim gets small injury or bruises, any kind of ointment kept at home should be applied there. Thereafter, injection of tetanus should be inoculated by going in the hospital so that there is no doubt of infection. If the skin is damaged because of injury, mix anti virus medicine in water and cleanse the wound by drenching cotton wad in this water. After that, tie a bandage there and get stitches by going to the doctor. There is doubt of infection if injection of tetanus is inoculated after 6 hours of injury.
If there is bleeding from the wound or injury, efforts should be done to stop bleeding soon. For it, give compression near about the injury affected portion with the help of clean cloth or hanky. If bleeding is too much, it can be stopped by tying the injured portion tightly. On thing should be remembered, the victim should be admitted into a hospital soon because if there is bleeding from any organ of the body more than 45 minutes, injury affected portion can be destroyed forever.
Wound should not be kept uncovered at any rate whether it is big or small. There are several kinds of bandages for the wound available in the market. Such kinds of bandages should be tied on the injury affected portion soon. The wound should be cleaned by you if it is deep and then make the patient admit into the hospital.
Sometime, injury does not appear on the surface of the skin but it is serious from inside. The victim feels too much pain and inflammation there. Negligence is not good in such kinds of accidents. Make the victim admit in the hospital soon.
If the bone has slipped away from its stage, effort should be done to bring the slipped bone on its natural place. If the patient is not able to bear the pain caused by accident, tie to the affected portion with the help of small triangle planks of wood. Make the victim admit into the hospital.
If there is an injury in the brain because of accident, give hot milk, tea and a little wine so that the victim may get strength.
If a person has swallowed poison, you should try to find out the type of poison. Don’t allow to the victim to sleep if he is unconscious. Make the patient admit into the hospital in this situation soon.
Treatment should be started with the things available on the spot of accident because there is no time to purchase things from the market at this crucial point of accident. If the accident is serious, you should start treatment of the victim soon and say to someone to call doctor or ambulance.
Tying bandage on the wounds of sole-
- Method of tying bandage on the injury of foot
- Method of tying bandage on the injury of knee
- Method of tying bandage on the chest
Burning or parching-
- Often, clothes of women burn while doing work in kitchen. Running here and there for help is not good at this time because flames become high because of air and extinguishing fire in this situation is very hard. The victim should roll on the ground by covering any blanket or thick cloth. Running in this situation is not good at any rate and hair of the victim can burn too. First, remove to the clothes from the body after extinguishing fire. If clothes have been stuck with the body, they should be removed by applying coconut oil. Thereafter, treatment of shock and inflammation should be done. After, admit to the victim into the hospital.
- The skin parches not burns if hot water, milk, tea or ghee falls over the body. Treatment of it can be done at home. Make a thick paste by dissolving salt in water. Apply this preparation on the skin. Its use provide relief and blisters do not take birth. Application of barnol or boric provides relief. If there are blisters, mix boric acid in coconut oil and apply on the affected portion.
- Sometimes, a person gets electric shot in rainy season or at the time of using electric equipment or he sticks to the equipment. Nowadays, several works are being done with the help of electric equipment. A person can get electric shot anytime. The victim can die too if treatment is not started soon. If a person sticks to the electric equipment, you should try to remove the victim from the equipment with the help of any wooden or rubber object by switching off main switch. You should stand on any table or wooden plank at the time of removing the victim. Thereafter, start treatment of the victim.
- Symptoms of shocking are pale face, pale lips, sweated forehead, cold body, high and slow pulsation, great thirst, vomiting or unconsciousness whether the shock belongs to electric shock or accident or any sad information. Make the victim on the coat gently. Try to make his body warm. Mix too much sugar in milk or tea and give to the victim by mixing wine in this preparation. Loose all the clothes of the victim and keep a bottle filled with hot water near about the feet of the victim. Give breath with your mouth to break the unconsciousness so that he may live alive until the doctor comes.
The victim suffers from giddiness, contraction in the eyeballs, and sensation of thirst again and again, high pulsation and unconsciousness because of sun stroking. Bring the victim on any cool place. Pour ice water on the head, neck and backbone by putting off the clothes. Say to the patient to take rest. Give mango juice or lemon juice mixed water to the patient to drink. Sometimes, sun stroking becomes the cause of high fever.
- Sometimes, a person becomes unconscious because of too much heat or by observing any fearful thing suddenly. Sometimes, a person becomes unconscious because of injury on the brain, too much burden on the brain or by breaking blood pipe. Swallowing poison, epilepsy or hysteria can be the causes of unconsciousness. Make the patient lie in fresh air at the time of unconsciousness. Clothes should be loosed and cold water should be sprinkled on the face. If hands and feet are cold, they should be covered with the help of blanket. If the face is pale, the head should be kept towards below and if the face is red, the head should be kept on a high place. Hot milk or tea should be given to the victim to drink after breaking the unconsciousness.
- Make the patient of hysteria lie on an open place by loosing the clothes and make him smoke ammonia. The patient of epilepsy can face its fit anywhere and anytime. He falls down on the earth because of unconsciousness in this disease. He flings his hands and feet and suffers from closed mouth, light breathing and contorted body, foams in the mouth. There is difference between hysteria unconsciousness and consciousness of epilepsy. The patient of hysteria feels nervousness and then he lies on a safe place but the patient of epilepsy faces its fits suddenly. There is danger of the life of the patient of epilepsy. Hence, the patient of epilepsy should remain far from fire, water and he should not be allowed to go on road alone. If he goes out of home, address and phone number should be kept in his pocket by writing on a paper. Make the patient lie in straight position and smell ammonia. Entangle pen or anything between his both jaws so that tongue may not injured. After sometime the patient will stand himself.
- if a person is drowning into the water, it should be tried to know how much time he was in the water after saving him. If he is unconscious after pulling him from the water, make him lie on the stomach by cleansing nose-throat and mouth to expel out the water from the stomach. Clothes should be put off too. After than, keep your hand under the center of the stomach and lift high so that the remaining water may come out. Every moment is precious for the patient. Hence, everything should be done soon. After expelling out the water from the stomach, breath should be given through the mouth.
Method of taking artificial breath:
Artificial breath is given by two ways-
Make the patient lie on the stomach and move his head in one direction. Make stretch his hands towards front side of the head on the ground. Make his tongue out. You should sit close by the patient on your knees towards the mouth of the victim. Keep your both hands on the waist of the victim and give compression on his hands by stretching and hardening his arms. Wind of the lungs will come out because of the compression given on the diaphragm. Thereafter, loose your hands slowly so that diaphragm may return in its real position and breath may fill there. Continue this activity 12 times in a minute until natural pressure starts. Try to give heat to the hands and feet after starting breath.
Make the patient lie straight on the back. Keep a pillow under his shoulders to keep them a little high and a little below to the head. Thereafter, expel out to the tongue of the patient and say to another person to keep the tongue with the help of hanky. You should sit on your knees just behind the head of the patient and then you should pull the wrist of the patient toward your side by holding them. Elbows should be on the ground while pulling the wrists. Then, fold your hands and bring under the stomach. Compress to the both sides of hands and elbows. Do this process until natural breath starts.
Entangling something in the throat:
Often, children swallow something while playing as paise, button etc. because of this reason, breathing starts to stop. In this condition, hang to the child in opposite direction and pat the back of the child properly so that entangle thing may come out. If the child has swallowed paise or button, give jalap to the child so that the thing swallowed by the child may come out with stool. If the thing is pointed, it can be harmful for the intestines. Then, give bananas and thick pudding (kheer) in too much quantity so that the thing may come out with stool easily. If the condition is serious, make the victim admit in the hospital.
Foreign body in eyes, nose or ear:
If any foreign body entangles inside the nose of someone, the victim should sneezes again and again by closing the mouth. If sneezes do not come, any straw should be inserted into the nose to sneeze. If foreign body does not come out by doing so, the victim should go to the doctor. If any mosquito entangles into the ear, a little lukewarm oil should be dripped into the ear. If the mosquito does not come out, the victim should go to the doctor.
- If any particle of dust or mosquito falls into the eyes, the victim should blink his eyes again and again by bending the head towards below to bring the object out. In this condition, eyes should not be massaged because doing so can be harmful. Drench a clean corner of handkerchief in glycerin and expel out the object from the eyes gently with the help of corner of hanky drenched in glycerin. Foreign body comes out by opening eyes in water or sprinkling water on the eyes.
There are several kinds of poisons. Poison can be divided into four parts according to the impact power of the poison.
Drugs: (poison for sleeping)
Sleep changes into deep unconsciousness by eating opium and tablets of sleeping. Their use brings sleep in the beginning. Eyeball of the eyes gets contracted and nerve of the patient becomes lazy.
Poison of nerve:
A person keeps on speaking himself by using wine, chloroform, datura, Indian hemp etc. thereafter, he sinks into deep unconsciousness. Eyeballs do not contract by using these things but they expand.
Poisons that burn:
The use of acid of sulphur, carbolic acid, caustic soda etc burns the body after reaching into the body. The victim suffers from such kinds of symptoms in it as too much inflammation in the throat and mouth, unbearable pain, vomiting. The patient reaches into coma because of the difficulty in breathing.
- Decay and rotten meal, meal that has been eaten by the poisonous creatures and the meal in which harmful things have been mixed produce poison in the meal. This meal does not burn by creates inflammation in the mouth, throat and stomach. The victim suffers from vomiting and loose motions along with stomach trouble. Hence, cleanliness is very essential.
- The doctor who gives first aid should try to know what kind of poison has been swallowed by the victim or what are the symptoms because of swallowing poison unknowingly? the doctor can find our about the kind of poison on the base of foul smell coming out from the mouth, by testing the poison affected portion, by expanding and contracting of the eyeball. Doctor should be called for soon after knowing about the swallowing poison. Following tips can be done to save the patient until the doctors arrives.
- If mouth, throat and lips do not burn after swallowing poison, mix two big spoons salt in water. Keep on giving this preparation to the victim at the regular interval of two minutes until he vomits.
- If the body is burning because of poison, the patient should not vomit. Foment external throat with any hot thing. Impact of poison becomes reduced by drinking hot ghee or hot rice water or paraffin. The patient gets relief in pain and body weakness.
- If poison is any chemical, make the patient drink alkali things to the patient to drink as water of lime or the water or magnesia by dissolving chalk. If you don’t know whether the poison is acidic or alkali, give too much milk to him to drink.
- If a person has swallowed poison that brings sleep, you should try to keep the victim in awakening condition. First, make the patient vomit and after that give hot and fast coffee to keep him in awakening condition.
- If the body of the victim is stiffing, artificial breath should be given to him. Make the patient vomit before giving artificial breath. If the patient becomes unconscious, hands and feet of the patient should be fomented. In this condition, adoption of anima with salt mixed water is very beneficial.
- If packaged meal that has been decayed is taken or rotten meal is taken by mistake, the user shows symptoms of cholera. Taking medicine to stop loose motion is very harmful in this condition. Give medicine to the patient after loose motion and after that give milk by mixing wine.
- If the poison has not been identified, shuffle raw eggs or water of rice in milk or tea and give to the victim in any kind of poison.
Poison of poisonous creatures:
Sometimes, poison reaches into the body because of biting by poisonous creatures as snake, scorpion and different kind of insects. Poison of these insects is different to each other. So, methods of their treatment are also different.
If someone has been bitten by the dog, it should be found out whether the dog was mad or not. If the dog is mad, it will not be difficult to find out it by paying attention on the dog. Injection of rabies should be inoculated by victim. If it is not treated for sometime, its treatment is not possible. The patient dies in the condition of pain after bearing the pain. If the victim cannot be brought to the doctor soon, bleeding should be stopped by doing anything. You can burn to the wound by applying carbolic acid wrapped on the stick of matchbox to avoid the bad impacts of poison.
- A person feels pinching pain when he is bitten by the snake and this pain keeps on increasing slowly. He feels sleepiness and unconsciousness. Pulsation and speed of breathing becomes reduced. The body of the victim starts to vibrate and stiff. Foams start to take birth in the mouth. If the snake is very poisonous, blood can take come from the mouth or the anus. The patient dies if the patient is poisonous. Most of people die because of hearing the name of snake. Heart pulsation of such kinds of people stops in this condition.
- If the victim is sure that he has been bitten by the snake or marks of snake teeth are clear on the skin, the veins between bitten portion and heart should be tied on 2-3 places. Thereafter, poisonous blood should be expelled out from the wound. Then, pour hot water on the wound so that all the poisonous blood may come out. If the wound is so, make a wound by scratching two lines there with the help of sharp knife. Finally, apply thick solution of potassium paramagnet.
A person who has been bitten by a scorpion suffers too much pain which keeps on increasing slowly and swelling comes on the bitten portion. For treatment, compress to the bitten portion forcibly and expel out the sting of the scorpion. Thereafter, apply sprit or tincture iodine there. If the sting is not expelled out, go to the doctor soon for treatment.
Other poisonous insects:
Sting should be expelled out by pressing the bitten portion if someone is bitten by the wasp, honey bee and other poisonous insects. Thereafter, apply sprit or tincture. If a person is bitten by lizard or kankhujra, treatment should be done as the treatment of snake biting. The bitten portion should be fomented to reduce swelling and pain. Give hot milk or tea after expelling out the sting to reduce the nervousness of the victim.
Bleeding from the injury:
The doctor of first aid has to pay lots of attention if someone gets injured and crushed. Lots of attention should be given if the victim falls and cut by any sharp weapon. Such kinds of accidents in which skin becomes damaged outwardly or inwardly keep on happening on time to time.
Following are the types of wounds:
- Wounds in which muscles are crushed because of the injury by stone or stick.
- Wound caused by gun or pistol
- Wounds in which blood pipes are cut. In this kind of wound any portion of the body is cut by any sharp weapon but the organ is not separated completely.
- Wound caused by the teeth and paws of beasts
- If the injury or bruise is minor, tincture iodine should be kept there by cleansing that portion.
- If there is bleeding because of cutting cells, the blood accumulates there itself. Such kind of injury should not be touched in which blood has accumulated itself.
- Wound should not keep in open condition and it should be avoided from the germs. Injury should be cleansed by drenching a wad of cotton in sprit or dettol. Injury should not be touched with dirty hands at any rate and it should not be covered with dirty clothes. Injury should be washed with antibacterial medicine mixed water. The injury should be bandaged with clean cotton and cloth.
- A person can be mentally disturbed too because of injury. The doctor of first aid should try to avoid the victim from this condition because any kind of shock can be harmful for the patient.
Blleding should be stopped by anyway otherwise it can be very harmful for the victim. Make the patient lie soon if he has been suffering from too much bleeding so that blood keeps on supplying into the heart properly. The victim suffers from vertigo, darkness before the eyes, unconsciousness if there is any kind of obstruction in the supply of blood. Bleeding in small children is the matter of anxiety. Normally, the body of children makes blood soon. An adult person can bear the bleeding but his body does not make blood soon and it is harmful for the body. Make the patient injury affected portionon a high place because hanging to the affected oragan becomes the cause of bleeding.
Kind of bleeding:
- There are three kinds of blood pipes-arteries, veins and cells. Due to this reason, there are three kinds of bleeding too- bleeding from the arteries, bleeding from the veins and bleeding from the cells.
- The color of the blood is shiny if it comes out after cutting the arteries. It comes in the form of showers along with the pulsation of the heart. Mostly, this blood comes out from the side of heart.
- The color of the blood is like deep brinjal color if it comes out after cutting the veins. It flows out slowly not rapidly. It comes out mostly from the opposite direction of the heart.
- The color of the blood is shiny like the arteries if it comes out after cutting the cells. This kind of blood comes out in a little quantity.
Methods-how to stop bleeding:
- Drench a clean cloth in cold water and press to the injury affected portion but anti germ medicine should be mixed in water necessarily.
- If blood is flowing rapidly in the veins, tie a bandage of thick cloth on the injury affected portion. Bleeding stops by doing so. If the flow of blood does not stop, compression should be given on the vein near about the injury affected portion by keeping one hard bandage in the opposite direction of the heart.
- In the bleeding from the arteries, compression should be given in the same way on the arteries situated near about the heart.
- Bleeding stops by giving compression in this way but if bleeding is too much, it cannot be stopped for long time by giving compression with the help of hands. In this situation, tie a bandage on the compression point either of artery or vein. Entangle a stick in the bandage and twist it. Thus, compression can be given easily. This method of giving compression is called tornicate. The doctor should be called for soon just after tying tornicate. If dotor does not come within 20 minutes, tornicate should be observed by untying it if bleeding does not stop. Tie the cornicate again. It should be tied for 20 minutes in one time.
- Tie a wad of cotton drenched in tincture iodine on the injured portion along with tightening of the tornicate.
- Compression should not be fallen on the breathing pipe while giving compression on the arteries of throat.
- Injury of chest and stomach is very serious, go to the doctor soon if there is injury in the chest or stomach. Make the patient lie comfortably by closing to the both sides of the injury. Wound should be kept by covering. Nothing should be given to the patient for drinking.
Bleeding from inside:
Sometimes, injury is not seen on the skin because injury is in internal portion of the body. In it, blood keeps on flowing inside the injury affected portion.
- Difficulty in breathing
- Sensation of giddiness or body exhaustion
- Paleness on the lips and mouth
- Sudden restlessness or nervousness
- Deduction in the pulsation of nerve
- Flowing red and frothy blood from the lungs along with cough
- Pain and swelling on the injury affected portion at the bleeding from the liver, spleen and small intestine
- Blood with vomiting at the bleeding from the stomach
- Congestion of coffee colored blood in the internal portion of the skin.
If a person gets injured internally and blood keeps on flowing inside the organ, the victim should be admitted in the hospital soon. Remember one thing that nothing should be given to the patient for eating. The patient should not feel any jolt while he is being taken into the hospital.
A little bleeding because of crushing or cutting of the cells:
If any body organ crushed under anything, the blood starts to become black inside the organ. Swelling comes there too. A little blood can flow after cutting the cells but the blood gathers there because of wind. In this situation, mix sprit in cold water and keep bandage by drenching in this water to cleanse the wound. Apply tincture on the wound after cleansing the wound.
- In summer, blood starts to flow from the nose because of bursting any pipe inside the nose or brain. It is called nose bleeding. In this situation do this as mentioned below-
- Make the patient sit in a straight position and bend her neck backwardly. Or keep a pillow under the neck and bend the head downwardly. Bleeding stops by doing so.
- Loose all the clothes of the patient.
- Say to the patient to take breath from the mouth.
- Say to the patient not to keep head upwardly. The patient should not force the mucus out of the nostril. Compress nose with the help of finger and keep your mouth in open stage.
- Pour cold water on the nose and keep bandages drenched in cold water on the head of the victim.
- If you have hydrogen peroxide, it should be given to the patient to smell.
There are three kinds of injuries of bones- spraining, slipping of the bone and breaking of the bone.
- Mostly, it comes in the knees of feet or wrist of the hands. In it, tissues are cut because of any kind of jerk or pressure. Consequently, the patient suffers from swelling or pain on the affected portion. Joints are not able to do work. First of all, put off your shoes and foment that place with hot water. Mop to the affected portion and apply tincture iodine. Complete relief should be given to the affected organ.
Slipping of the bones:
- When joints of bones slip from their original place, joints do not do their work and swelling comes there. Shape of that portion becomes changed and the victim suffers too much pain while moving to the affected organ. Identification of the affected portion becomes hard because of changed shape of the affected portion and too much pain. Try to move bone to bring it normal stage. Admit to the patient in hospital if bone does not reach in their normal stage.
There are several kinds of fractures.
If there is no wound in the body after the fracture, it is called simple fracture.
If broken bone produces wounds by tearing the blood pipes or muscles, it is called mixed fracture.
Symptoms of fracture:
- Pain, swelling, inactiveness of the affected organ, change in the shape, coming out the ends of broken bones or producing sound because of movement. The patient can suffer from fever too after one day of fracture.
- The work of jointing fractured bones after fracture should be done by the doctor by meeting them properly. Plaster should be covered on the fractured bones by orthopedic. This work should not be done by doctor who gives first aid but he can support to the patient until he is admitted in hospital.
- Joint fractured bones carefully without giving pressure. Tie small planks on the fracture bones so that they may not move. The victim should be admitted into a hospital in this condition. Fracture affected bones can be reached in worse condition because of jolts of the path.
- Say to the patient to take complete rest. If fractured bone gets no relief, bandage should be tied again after untying.
- If bone of the leg gets fractured, it should be straighten by pulling it slowly. Small planks should be tied on the fractured bone too.
- Support should be given to the fractured bone of leg with another leg and fracture bone of arm with another arm by hanging in a strap.
- If there is wound too along with fractured bone, you should try to stop blood first and start treatment of the wound. Thereafter, tie small planks on the fractured bones.
How to make small planks?
- First of all, use straight sticks, planks and everything which is available at that time. Small planks should be so long and strong so that they can hold to the fractured bone properly.
- Rope should be tied on the small planks so tight so that fractured bone may not move and blood keeps on circulating properly.
- Only bandage is used whether bone is fractured or there is sprain or wound. Bandage keeps on covering to the wound so that germs and bacteria may not enter there and cotton or ointment may not slip from the fractured bone. It use provides relief too if it is applied on the wound. Bandage should be 6 centimeter broad for leg and 3 centimeter for fingers.
Types of bandages:
There are two types of bandages long and in triangle shape. Mostly, triangle shaped bandage is used while doing first aid.
Long bandage should be tied on the wound affected portion according to the wound. Bandage should be tied in this way so that two third portion of the first layer of the bandage should be covered by another layer of bandage. Bandage should be neither too tight nor too loose. Wound should be covered properly by the bandage. Bandage should be kept on sticking to the wound. Bandage is torn into two parts from the center at the end of the bandage. Knot should not be just above the wound. We should tie to the bandage by leaving some place from the wound. The patient does not feel pain and any kind of harm by tying bandage in this way.
Tapering piece of bandage:
This kind of bandage is used on large scale in primary treatment because several aims can be completed with the help of this kind of bandage. Cut one meter piece of unbleached cloth in a crooked way to make two tapering bandage. In need, such kinds of bandages can be used as a long bandage by folding it in four or eight folds.
Knot of bandage:
A knot is tied in two ways at the time of bandaging. First knot is called reef and second is called granny. Mostly, reef knot is used in primary treatment because it does not create any kind of problem viz it does not become the cause of pinching. Edges of the bandage should be pressed under the bandage so that edges of bandage may not hang.
Slig or lake:
A tapering bandage is tied in the hand to give support to the broken hand and then it is hanged in the neck. This kind of tapering bandage in half breadth is tied in the hand to give support to the portion of hand from hand to elbow. In it, bring one edge of bandage behind the neck and other from the front side of the shoulder and then tie it and keep hand in the bandage. Third edge of the tapering bandage should be hanged along with bandage with the help of pain.
Binding wooden planks or splits:
Wooden planks are used to give support and keeping on one place to the broken bones. Planks should be equal to the portion of hurt. Select strong and smooth planks for this work. Keep a thick layer of cotton on the plank and then tie it on the hurt affected portion. The wooden plank will not pinch on the hurt affected portion.