Fracture of bone


FRACTURE OF BONE


Introduction-

        After any type of accident, there is highest possibility of fracturing the bones along with injuries and bleedings. In most of the cases, the condition of injuries, bleeding, fracture and shock occurs together. when any section of bone get hard jerk or hurt, it is fractured. The bones are also fractured by falling down on hard surface or stone, hurt by any hard object or by suppressing under heavy weight, etc.

For illustration- if a person forwards his/her palms while falling down from a height for protection, even his/her collar bone is fractured. It has been also seen the fracture of ribs bones even by coughing with force due to sudden contraction of many muscles badly. 

        the bones of children are weaker than adult due to less calcium and phosphorus in them. therefore, when heavy weight falls on them suddenly, they do not fracture, but cracks are fallen in them. the fracture of this type is known as ‘Green stick.’

        Joint fracture is more serious than it. The ends of the fractured bones are being inserted in the muscles and skin resulting there is no any doubt that tissues are affected as well as the possibility of infection is also increased.

        Blood vessels are attached with bones, and therefore bleeding takes place in additional volume after fracturing of bones especially big bones. for example- bleeding up to 1 liter may take place after fracturing thigh (femur) bone.

        Sometimes, in case of any serious accident, the injured person gets hurt also on his/her delicated organs like- brain, heart, kidneys, spines, etc. along with fracturing the bones. it is very serious (dangerous) condition for the sufferer, because it may be also responsible for death.

        It is very necessary for you or any other who is giving primary treatment, to check the injured person that any of his/her bones has been fractured or not by accident.  

Outer (external) symptoms of fracture are as follow-

        The injured person feels violent pain on his/her body part where the bone has fractured. It may also be possible that there are no any marks found on that part. Violent pain starts even by little touch on the affected part (where bone has fractured).

        The affected area is swollen and its appearance is changed. If any organ of the body is not moving in normal way or properly, it may be possible that the bone of that organ has fractured.

        The normal (natural) shape of such organ is corrupted (disturbed). Sometimes, the muscles make the lower pieces of fractured bone up, resulting the affected parts start appearing as small.

        The shape and size of the bones are changed by itself too after fracturing. It is often seen in case of the fracture of leg’s bone.         

Treatment- The bones are often fractured in any big (major) accident resulting big wounds, bleeding, stop breathing, etc. may occur together. therefore, it is very important for you or any other who is treating, to check other serious hurts or injuries which should be treated first before giving treatment for bone fracture. There are few symptoms like- stopping breath, stopping heartbeats, profuse bleeding, etc. which should be treated first, it is very important.

        Along with it, it is also very necessary for you to be sure that the bones of which body parts have being fractured or at how many section a bone has being fractured.

        It is important at the time of fracture to prevent other harms occurring after it and provide maximum relief to the injured person by ameliorating his/her pain.

        The main motto of giving primary treatment in this condition is to prevent or lessen the possibility of occurring shock, not allowing the blood vessels and nerves to get more harms, as well as ameliorate (lessen) his/her pain.

        It is better to give primary treatment to the sufferer on the spot. If it is necessary to remove out him/her from that place or carry him/her to another place, try hard to avoid any type of movement or jerk while carrying and do not do such an activity due to which he/she got unnecessary movement.

        If the fractured bones had come out from the skin, do not touch (disturb) it. you should neither wash it with water nor apply any type of antiseptic on it.

        You should never try to set the fractured bones in their normal position, because you should not an expert doctor. due to it, the sufferer’s condition may become more worse and later many difficulties may appear in setting and joining them properly.

        The fracture of bones is very serious (dangerous) incident. So, it is better to inform a doctor first and then the family members of the sufferer before starting primary treatment.

        Give support the part, suffered from fracture, in such a way so that this part could not be able to moved and remain in its present position as far as possible. It lessens the possibility of more harms and normally bleeding is also stopped. As well as, the arteries, nerves, etc. do not get more harm by the sharp or pointed ends of fractured bones.

        If possible, move the affected part little up. Do not allow even the parts previous and next to the affected part as move. It can be done by two ways and both can be used at once or separately.

        First is to tie bandage (strip). For this purpose, there is a need of splint. For giving support, other healthy parts of the body can be also used instead of splint. Be careful while tying stripe that it should be tied on the part where bone has being fractured and it should be tied in such a manner so that the affected part could remain stable (move less/ fix). Do not tie the stripe as very tight otherwise swelling is aggravated more due to obstruction in blood circulation. It is very important to keep the bandage as little loose.

        If the knees, ankles, etc. have to tie, place a pad on them otherwise the sufferer may feels troubles and become restless.

        Normally, wide stripe is considered as the best for such purpose. Like this, triangular and crape stripes may be very useful in emergency. The knot of the stripes (bandage) should be tied only on the healthy section of the body. 

The second option to prevent movement in the fractured bone is to tie it with any splint. It is very useful in case of the fracture of thing bone. The splint may be a longer hard piece of wood, plastic, metal, etc. it should be as long as it could reach to the joints of both the sides (upper and lower) of the affected part and it should be as wider as the affected part could be kept on it properly.

        Before placing the affected part on the splint, cotton or soft clothe should be kept in extra on it. well, tying the splint just on the worn clothe of the sufferer is considered as the best, but it is not possible in every case.

        In emergency when wood, plastic, etc. are not available, other things like walking stick, umbrella stick, book, newspaper, etc. can be used as splint.

        In many cases, the bones of spines, skull, ribs, chest, etc. are fractured in accident. In such condition, you should be very careful while giving primary treatment otherwise he/she may get much harm. About primary treatment given in such cases, it will be very important to discuss in detail- 

Spines (vertebral column)- the vertebral column is made up of small bones called vertebrae. The long chain made by these vertebrae is called vertebral column (spine). It controls and holds the weight of head and trunk. When a person falls down from a height on any hard surface or stick, etc. on his/her back, or any heavy weight like- pillar, the roof of house, etc. fall on his/her back, the vertebral column is broken (fractured). This type of situation occurs during earthquakes, or landslide or by suppressing (coming) under wreckage, etc.

         Sometimes, the vertebral column is fractured also due to few indirect reasons like- by lifting over weight or falling from a height on the feet or hips or thrown forwards (strong jerk forwardly)  suddenly with force in a car accident, etc.

        In many cases, it does not find out by simply looking the injured person that his/her backbone (vertebral column) has broken (fractured). In all such conditions, If the injured person gets hurt on his/her back, he/she feels pain in his/her waist (back) or he/she is in the condition of shock, etc., you should give primary treatment to him/her by considering it as the fracture of vertebral column.

        The condition of the sufferer is become too serious after the fracture of his/her vertebral column. in such case, sometimes the sufferer is lost his/her control on his/her muscles (is suffered from paralysis), the parts below the injured area are become insensitive. It is the condition of emergency for you or one who is giving primary treatment. in such situation, you should need to do every your work immediately, with patience and wisdom, but without making much hurry or nervousness. As well as you should also need to arrange (inform) a doctor immediately. You should keep continue your treatment until a doctor comes. 

        In fact, you should also be extra careful about one whose vertebral column has broken (fractured) but he/she has not lost his/her control on the muscles i.e. he/she is free from paralysis affects. This condition is also too serious and is important to give primary treatment according to it.

        You should not allow the injured person to move and never allow him/her to stand at any cost. if he/she is in unconscious stage, check the condition of his/her tongue after opening the mouth that it has been entangled inside the breathing pipe or not after turning; if yes, make it correct immediately.

        Cover the sufferer’s body with a bed sheet. In cold climate, use a light blanket for this purpose. Be alert until a doctor comes. Give primary treatment in case of stopping breath or heartbeats.

        If the vertebral column a person has broken (fractured) in accident as well as if a doctor is not available, carry him/her to the nearest hospital or a doctor by yourself. for this purpose, it is very necessary to use a stretcher for carrying him/her.

        Before making the injured person to lie down on the stretcher, place a pad under thighs, knees and ankles. Tie a stripe (bandage) on the ankles and feet as the shape of ‘8’ in such a manner that its knot fall on the sole. tie wide stripes on the knees and thighs.

        Always make the injured person as lie down on his/her back while carrying him/her on the stretcher. It will protect the vertebral column to get more harms.

        Normally, a stretcher is made by the piece of strong canvas along with two wooden or plastic poles at both the sides. It is necessary to make the surface of the stretcher as hard to carry the injured person (whose vertebral column has broken (fractured)). For this purpose, fix small flat pieces of wood parallel to the width of stretcher or fix a long flat piece of wood parallel to its length, but be careful that such type of wooden flat pieces are not able to be displaced.

        In many cases, a stretcher is not available on the spot. In such situation, any strong and wide piece of wood, or board, on which the whole body of the sufferer may come, can be used for this purpose.

        If the injured person has been lied down on a bed sheet, lift him/her along with bed sheet and make as lie down on the stretcher. The stretcher should not be at distance from him/her, but it should be as closet to him/her as possible. There are four people needed for lifting the injured person- one should need to hold both the two ends of the bed sheet from one side and second one should need to hold the bed sheet from another side, third should need to give support to the head of injured person and fourth should give support to his/her feet at ankles and then finally move the injured person gently and keep on the stretcher. One thing which should be kept by each of them in their mind during this activity that any part of the injured person especially his/her neck and trunk are not able to get even little jerks. For this purpose, it is very important to have proper understanding between both the people who have to hold bed sheet.

        In case of getting hurt in the neck, keep the bags full of sands on both the sides of his/her head to keep it stable. Keep blanket, bed sheet, etc. as wrapped around the neck, back and knees.

        When you have to carry the injured person to far away and the path is uneven, tie the stripes of the elbows, thighs, hips and knees with the stretcher.

        After reaching to the hospital, do not make him/her move without asking from a doctor for it.    

Skull- In the case of fracture of skull, the parts like- brain, nervous system and arteries of the sufferer may be affected badly. As well as, the condition of shock may also occur. Fracture may also take place in the upper section of the skull or in arms due to getting serious or direct hurt on the head or by falling down with the head, etc. long or circular swelling is come as its outer symptom.

        By falling down on feet or on the lower section of back or by getting heavy stroke on the lower jaw, etc. the head gets hurt indirectly and blood from the ear or nose, or fluid from the brain may start flowing. Sometime, this type of blood and fluid is entered inside the mouth and come out along with vomiting. If the bone sockets (cavity) of eyes are affected by hurt, they are become red due to excessiveness of blood. Normally, a person is become unconscious after fracturing of skull bones and changing is occurred in the shape of eyes’ irises,

        The results of the fracture of skull bone are very dangerous. The respiration of the sufferer may also be affected. But, if it is running normally, make him/her as lie down on his/her back and make the head little up by placing a pillow under the head and shoulders. Keep him/her quite completely and do not allow him/her to move even little. Unfold a blanket over his/her body and carry him/her to the hospital on a stretcher in lying position partially.

        If the respiration of the sufferer is not normal and bubbles are appearing while breathing due to bleeding in his/her chest, make him/her lie down on the side. Give support by placing a pad in front of his/her chest and bend his/her knees upwards.

        If the sufferer is in shock, give treatment also for shock. Check that anything has entangled in his/her breathing pipe or not. If blood is coming out from the sufferer’s ear, make him/her lie down on the side of that ear. Do not give anything to him/her for eating and drinking and also do not move him/her even little. Even while carrying him/her to the hospital, leave as in the same posture. 

Ribs- the ribs are often fractured by getting hurt directly on ribs or by falling down strongly on the chest or by stroking directly on the driving wheel (steering), etc. their broken (fractured) parts are inserted inside the body. it may also harm (hurt) the lungs.

        The ribs may also be fractured by falling pressure on the chest of a person from both the sides i.e. from the front side and back side. But, the broken parts of the ribs are not inserted inside the body in this case and there is also no any possible for the lungs to get hurt.

        The external symptoms of the ribs fracture are- feeling pain on the affected part which is aggravated by deep breathing or coughing. This is the reason why the sufferer tries to take small breath and fear in coughing.

        If the ribs have been inserted inwards inside the body after fracturing, the possibility of internal bleeding is increased too much and the condition of the sufferer is become too serious. In case of inserting broken pieces of ribs in the lungs, red frothy blood comes out along with the sufferer’s spit. Sometimes, holes are made in the chest due to inserting broken pieces of the ribs. In this condition, the sufferer’s chest is not remain as stronger and air starts entering inside the body through these holes and sound starts producing while breathing. This condition is very serious and it is very important to give primary treatment to the sufferer.

        In case of having broken pieces of the ribs inserted in the chest, do not tie stripes (bandage) on the chest, but if the holes have been made in the chest, do pressure dressing with cravat stripe for keeping the weak portion of the chest as stable. Resulting, the chest does not expand outwards while exhaling. Keep the sufferer lie down as partially. Place a blanket after making it as a round behind his/her back. Keep his/her head and shoulders up. after that, carry him/her to the hospital on a stretcher as in the same posture.

        Hang the arm of the affected side of the sufferer with the help of sling. If he/she feels uncomfortable after tying stripe (bandage), open (untie) it and carry the sufferer to a doctor. keep him/her in lying posture as partially while doing such activity. 

Chest bone- in many cases, the chest bone of a person is fractured due to crushing in accident. As well as, there is also possibility to get serious hurt or injury in heart and important blood vessels.

        In such condition, the sufferer feels violent pain on affected part, difficulty in breathing and sensation of deformed bones by moving hand on the chest.

        For the treatment of it, first of all loose the clothes of the sufferer and then make him/her lie down on his/her back gently in comfortable posture as well as cover his/her body with a bed sheet, etc. and then carry him/her to the hospital on a stretcher.   

Collar bone- The collar bone gets often fracture when a person fall down from a height on his/her shoulders or on the palms, etc.

        After fracturing of the collar bone, the arm of that side is become useless as partially. He/she takes help by placing his/her elbow of other hand while lifting the affected arm, as well as his/her head is bended towards the affected side.

        In such condition, the ends of fractured bone which are overlap on one another can be seen and felt. The outer end is found downwards.      

        In this condition, do not put off the coat, shirt, etc. of the sufferer for giving primary treatment. make the frontier portion of the arm of the affected side up by giving support and place a pad under it. after that, chest his/her blood circulation through pulse rate that it is running normally (properly) or not, or loose the stripe of the arm little.

        If the sufferer is not in shock, he/she can be carried to the hospital on his/her feet, but in the condition of shock, first of all give treatment for his/her shock and then carry him/her to the hospital in any vehicle.

Hip bones- the hip bones are often fractured by coming under any vehicle or falling down heavy weight on them. sometimes, it is fractured also when a person falls down from a height on his/her feet or when he/she makes his/her lower body parts hard while falling down. In many cases, the hip bones are also fractured in car accidents.

        The urinary bladder and urethra may also get hurt or harms by fracturing of hip bones. the external symptoms of it are- pain in the hips and waist which is aggravated by coughing or moving.

        Due to fracture of hip bones, the sufferer is not able to stand as erect even after not getting any type hurt or injury in the lower parts of his/her body. he/she also feels difficulty in urination. urine comes out mixed with red or black blood. It may be possible that bleeding has taken place in his/her internal organs. in such condition, you should make the sufferer lie down in such a posture which is the most comfortable for him/her. It is also better to spread his/her legs after making him/her lie down on the back. Do not allow him/her to urinate.

        The sufferer should be carried to the nearest hospital on a stretcher in comfortable position. In such condition, there is no need of tying stripe (bandage). If the hospital is far away and the path is uneven, stripes should be tied on the sufferer’s body. these stripes should be tied strongly but not too tightly. Be careful that the injured part should not be suppressed inwards while tying the stripes.

        Tie a wide stripe in the shape of 8 by placing pad on the knees and ankles.

Thigh bone (femur)- femur is known as the main bone of the thigh. If it is fractured, the sufferer is neither able to sit nor able to stand properly. in older people, it is fractured also due to minor reason like slipping, etc. but in many cases, others believe that only scratches have come on their hip by slipping. In such cases, check these scratches properly and be sure that the femur bone is fractured or not.

        The femur may be fractured at any section in length, but the fracturing of it may always prove serious result, because the sufferer may get deep shock due to it and bleeding may take place from the tissues around it. the fractured femur especially in the case of older may take longer time in recovering.

        If joint fracture takes place along with the fracture of femur, the sufferer’s condition is become more serious.

        The sufferer feels violent pain in the fracture of femur. The affected area is swollen too much and the sufferer is gone in shock. the affected leg starts appearing smaller than other one as well as it is bended too. sometimes, the sufferer is become unable to lift that leg.

        In such condition, you should need to give primary treatment first for shock. and then, tie stripe on the affected leg up to the portion below knee with other legs for making it unmovable. A pad should be also placed under the knee.

        If splint is easily available and you know how it is tied properly, keep a pad on the splint and then place it between legs to the toes. Now, tie wide stripes on the following parts along with splint- below the sides on the chest, on the hips’ joints, on both the thighs (one on little above the fractured bone and other on little below it), on both the feet, on both the knees and on both the ankles (in the shape of 8). 

Knees’ cap- the knees’ cap may be fractured by getting hurt any thing on it. sometimes, it is broken in to two pieces by falling force of the muscles on it.

        In this condition, it is not possible to bend, lift and move the legs without giving any support. In this condition, the extensor muscle is not able to do its work properly and the leg is become useless. The knees are swollen too much. Sometimes, as much gap is appeared in between both the two fractured pieces of knees’ cap as they can be felt.

        In this case, make the sufferer lie down on his/her back and keep the leg whose knee cap has broken in comfortable position by lifting. As a result of it, the thigh muscles will become loose and pull the fractured bone upwards.

        After tying stripe on the knees, tie the affected leg, from its thigh to knee, with other legs. Now, tie a splint from hip to the heel on the affected leg. Place a pad on the splint. Place another pad under the ankle and make it little up from the splint.

        Tie the legs along with splint at three sections- on the upper thigh with a wide stripe, on the ankle and toes in the shape of 8 with a narrow stripe and on the knee caps.

        Keep the affected leg as up even while carrying him/her to the hospital.

Calves bones- there are two chief bones found in the calve- fibula and tibia. Any one or both may be fractured by getting hurt on them. the sufferer feels pain by fracturing of fibula bone, swelling is appeared, but there is no any deformation found, because it goes on getting support from tibia. Deformation may be found after fracturing of both the bones.

        If the swelling is appeared around the ankle after getting hurt, there is a chance of fracturing ankles’ bones.

        After fracturing calves bones, tie the affected leg with the healthy one from thigh to ankle after placing a pad between knees and ankles. Tie the feet and ankles with stripe after placing extra pad on the ankle and knees along with splint in the shape of 8. tie a wide stripe on the upper thigh and knees. At last, tie a stripe each on the lower and upper portions to the fractured part. a stripe should not be tied in the fracture of bones near the ankles.

Bones of toes- the bones of toes are fractured by passing the wheels of any vehicles over them or by suppressing them with heavy weight. After these types of incidents, if a person feels violent pain in his/her feet, swelling appears or he/she does not feel strength in them, etc., it is the signs of fracturing feet (toes) bones.

        Put off shoes and shocks of the sufferer even in case of wound in his/her toes. If it is not possible to put off shoes and shocks, remove out by cutting. Tie the injured toes with healthy leg. After placing pad between toes, ankles and knees, tie them below the knees.

        Tie a splint from toes to heel on the injured feet after placing a pad on it.  

         If the toes’ bones have been fractured and wounds have not been appeared in them, make the toes little up. it provides little relief to the sufferer. In this case, there is no need to put off shoes and shocks.

        Many people wear slipper in their feet or remain as naked feet. in such condition if the feet and toes bones are fractured, do all the treatments which are done in case of wounds.

        Carry the sufferer to the hospital always on the stretcher and keep the injured feet as little up.

Arm- in case of fracturing of arm’s bone- the upper part of humerus, place a hanky in the side after making it as mattress and tie the arm along with chest gently. Tie a triangular sling after placing the affected hand by bending it at elbow on the other shoulder.

        In case of fracturing of arms’ bone at the place near elbow, first of all check that the elbow can bend or not. it can bend, tie the arm with chest and give support to the forearm with sling. If the elbow can not bend, tie the whole arm attached with body straightly.

        While falling down from a height, if one spread his/her hand, the bones between the elbow and wrist are fractured. In such condition, the sufferer feels violent pain also in his/her wrist. In many cases, we believe that this type of pain is occurring due to strain of the wrist, but not due to fracture. In case of fracture, deformation and swelling are appeared too much.

        In this situation, bend the elbow as much as it starts making right angle. Keep the forearm on the chest in such a manner that the thumb is become upwards and the palm is remain on the chest. Tie the forearm from elbow to palm in the shape of 8 after wrapping newspaper or magazine around it and then give support to the arm with a sling.

Fracturing (breaking) of the bones of lower jaw- when the lower jaw gets strong or direct hurt, its bones are fractured. Only the bone of one side of the jaw is often fractured, but sometimes the bones of both the sides of jaw are fractured. In most of the cases, it is joint fracture of bone which is increased by speaking or swallowing anything.

        In this condition, the sufferer’s face and lower jaw are swollen, the teeth are uprooted and grinding sound starts coming out from the teeth. This type of sound is as louder as it can be heard not only by the sufferer but also by one who is giving primary treatment to him/her.

        If the sufferer gets hurt also on his/her tongue during fracturing of the bones of jaw (lower), it may be turned backwards and may obstruct the breathing pipe. It may be also responsible for profuse bleeding.  

        In case of fracturing the bones of lower jaw, do not allow the sufferer to speak. If his/her teeth are artificial, remove it out from the mouth. Be careful that the tongue is not able to be turned back and entangled inside the breathing pipe. Be careful also that the breathing pipe would remain as opened.

        Make the sufferer little bend frontward and press his/her lower jaw upwards on the upper jaw with the help of your palm. During this activity, the upper jaw works like a splint.

        After that, place a narrow stripe below the sufferer’s chin. Unfold one end of it towards his/her head and then to the ear crossing over another end of it. spread smaller end of stripe towards the forehead and unfold the big ones in opposite direction behind the head then tie it near the ear.

        If the sufferer feels vomiting tendency, untie the strip and let him/her to vomit and then tie it again and carry him/her to the hospital immediately. While carrying him/her to the hospital, follow the precautions described below.    

If the sufferer can sit, say him/her to bow his/her head. It will prevent the tongue to obstruct the breathing pipe. But, if he/she is unable to sit and it is necessary to carry him/her to the hospital on a stretcher (in case of joint fracture), make him/her lie down on a blanket in such a manner that his/her face is remain downwards. Then, four people should need to hold each corner of the blanket and lift the sufferer, then replace him/her on the stretcher done as in case of fracture of spine.

Make the sufferer lie down on the stretcher in such a manner that his/her head would remain out of canvas and give support to his/her head by the stripes hanging with the handle of it. place a blanket under his/her chest so that his/her head remain as hanging frontward.      

Fracturing of the bones of palm and fingers- the bones of palm and fingers are fractured by hurting due to crushing by any way or getting jerk, etc.  This type of sufferer can go to a doctor by him/herself too. But, if the doctor is far away, he/she should go to a doctor only after taking following primary treatment.

        Take a wide splinter of in the shape of palm and then wrap a piece of cloth on it or after placing a mattress of clothe or cotton in between the splinter or palm, keep the palm on the splinter. After that, take a triangular piece of thin stripe and arrange it in such a manner that the middle section of it would fall on the fingers and then bring both its ends by crossing each other in opposite direction to the section below the wrist and tie it at this place after wrapping them on it 1-2 times.     

Fracture of sole’s bones and toes bones- the bones of soles and toes are also fractured by getting hurt, crushing or by getting jerks. Its primary treatment is done also like that of palm’s treatment by tying stripe after placing splinter under it. if the sufferer has worn shoes, his/her shoes should be removed out by cutting their back stitches so that any type of pressure would not fall on the fractured bones. you should also not allow the sufferer to walk.

Fracture of legs’ bones- this type of bone fractures also by direct hurt and comes out from the skin. do following primary treatment for it-

        Spread the sufferer’s legs straightly and then take two thin and smooth splinter or wooden pieces in the length from sole to knee and place each on both the sides from knee to sole.

        Other leg should also be spread straightly. After that, make both the legs of the sufferer on the floor, with the help of anyone, parallel and close to each other and five stripes should be tied by following ways for keeping the splinters immovable (stable)- tie the first stripe on the ends of the splinter little above to the knees. The second one should be tied little above the affected place and the third should be tied little below the affected place. all these three stripes are tied on the affected legs around both the splinters. The fourth stripe should be tied on both the knees around the splinter, and the middle portion of the firth stripe is kept below both the ankles after that bring both the ends of it upwards and at last tie these ends on the sole after crossing to each other. if anyone is not present for your help in holding the sufferer’s legs, first of all this stripe should be tied. After tying stripes by the above manner, make him/her lie down on a stretcher and then should be carried to a doctor.

Dislocation- the place in the body where any two or more bones meet (join) together, is called joints. There are three types of joints-

  1. immovable joints or Synarthroses- this type of joints is not able to move like- the joints of skull bones.
  2. movable joints or Diarthroses- this type of joints move normally like- vertebral column.
  3. slightly movable joints or Amphiarthroses- this type of joints can move very well in few certain direction like- the joints of thumbs and fingers, wrist, elbow, shoulders, big toes and toes, ankle, knees and hip. The joints of knees, fingers and wrists are different from the joints of hips and shoulders in respect of their structure. In the joints of shoulders and hips, a round ball like structure of bone is as trapped in the cavity of other bone. The jaw has also the same joints.

When this type of joint is moved from its place due to getting any type of jerk, hurt, stroke, etc. and due to which, the joints of bones are also become open, this condition is called dislocation.

In fact, each joint may be opened however mostly dislocation of shoulders and collar joints is common today. the joint of jaw also comes in this race.

In case of small children, such types of joints are immature and therefore when they are holding or lifting in wrong ways, the bones of their collar and arms are often moved from their location.

         When dislocation takes place, pain starts in the joint area and around it; the shape of joint area is changed and the closet area of the joint are become tough after getting swelling. As a result of it, it is not possible to move the affected part and if it is moved, the sufferer feels violent pain.

Treatment- in case of dislocation of the collar, shoulders, elbows and wrist joints, the hand should be hanged in neck after tying stripe. It is relievable for the patient. in case of dislocation of other joints, we should make the sufferer to sit or lie down in such a posture that he/she feels relief. Puff of all the clothes from the affected part and a piece of clothe soaked in ice water should be kept on the affected part.

        If the patient feels trouble by cold water, the part should be fomented with hot water. hot tea or milk should be give to him/her for drinking. We should also try to keep his/her body warm by other means too. after that, he/she should be carried to a doctor.

        In case of dislocation of jaw’s joint, first of all fix a pad of clothe or any big lid inside the sufferer’s mouth in such a manner that it would not be moved. After that, place both your thumbs on the sufferer’s chin and press downwards and backwards as well as try to lift his/her chin upward with the help of your fingers. By doing like this, the jaw is set on its natural position. Just after setting the jaw, the mouth is shut suddenly. Therefore, if clothe pad or lid will not present inside the sufferer’s mouth, your both the thumbs may be crushed or cut .

        In case of dislocation of thigh joint, a wooden flat piece is tied on that part. it is also tied in case of fracture of thing bone. In it, the sufferer does not feel much pain, so he/she can be carried to a doctor even after 2-3 hours of dislocation.   

        You or one who is give primary treatment should neither try to set the moved joints by yourself except jaw joint nor should carry the sufferer to any inexpert doctor.

        After setting of joints, the sufferer should need to take rest for longer, it is very necessary for him/her.

        The part suffered from dislocation is tied with a wooden flat piece after setting it so that the affected part could not move. It should be untied only according to a doctor. by making hurry in this case, dislocation start occurring soon as well as again and again.